韦德体育下载官网中國關鍵詞抗擊新冠肺炎疫情

发布时间 : 2020-04-30 04:55作者:韦德体育下载官网浏览次数 : 100次

韦德体育下载官网2020年2月10日,習近平在北京調研指導新型冠狀病毒肺炎疫情防控工作。3月2日,習近平在北京考察新冠肺炎防控科研攻關工作。3月10日,習近平專門赴抗擊疫情的主戰場湖北省武漢市考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,在火神山醫院和東湖新城社區這兩個抗疫陣地,看望慰問奮戰在一線的廣大醫務工作者、解放軍指戰員、社區工作者、公安干警、基層干部、下沉干部、志愿者和患者群眾、社區居民,勉勵大家堅定信心,戰勝疫情。考察期間,他在向居家隔離的社區居民揮手致意,鼓勵“大家一起加油”,叮囑“武漢人喜歡吃活魚,多組織供應”,點贊醫務人員是新時代“最可愛的人”,表達“黨和人民感謝武漢人民”深切之情。

實地考察結束后,習近平主持召開了一場電視電話會議,這是繼2月23日統籌推進新冠肺炎疫情防控和經濟社會發展工作部署會議、3月6日決戰決勝脫貧攻堅座談會之后,他與湖北各地領導干部再次以這種方式“面對面”。在會議講話中,習近平作出重要判斷:湖北和武漢疫情防控形勢發生積極向好變化,取得階段性重要成果,初步實現了穩定局勢、扭轉局面的目標。當前,疫情防控任務依然艱巨繁重。越是在這個時候,越是要保持頭腦清醒,越是要慎終如始,越是要再接再厲、善作善成,繼續把疫情防控作為當前頭等大事和最重要的工作,毫不放松抓緊抓實抓細各項防控工作,堅決打贏湖北保衛戰、武漢保衛戰。

習近平指出,這次新冠肺炎疫情防控是對治理體系和治理能力的一次大考,既有經驗,也有教訓。要放眼長遠,總結經驗教訓,加快補齊治理體系的短板和弱項,為保障人民生命安全和身體健康筑牢制度防線。要著力完善城市治理體系和城鄉基層治理體系,樹立“全周期管理”意識,努力探索超大城市現代化治理新路子。

OnFebruary10,2020,XiJinpinginspectedCOVID-19preventionandcontrolworkinBeijing.OnMarch2,hevisitedthescientistsandresearchersworkingagainstthecoronavirusinthecapitalcity.

XitoldtheconferencethattheepidemiccontainmentinHubeiandWuhanistrendingonapositivedirection,withinitialprogressachievedinstabilizingthesituationandturningthetide.However,thetaskremainsarduous.Atthiscriticalmoment,peoplemustbesober-minded,remainalert,continuetheeffortsandcontinuetotakeepidemicpreventionandcontrolasthetoppriorityandthemostimportanttask.Allpreventionandcontrolmeasuresshouldbeimplementeddowntothelastdetail,todefendWuhanandHubeiandwinthewaragainsttheepidemic.

XipointedoutthattheresponsetotheepidemicisabigtestofChina’sgovernancesystemandcapacity.Therearebothexperienceandlessons.Peopleshouldtakealong-termview,drawexperienceandlessonsforthefuture,andworkswiftlytoaddressinadequaciesandfixweaklinksinthegovernancesystem,soastoconsolidatetheinstitutionaldefensetoensurepeople’shealthandsafety.Effortsshouldbemadetoenhanceurbangovernanceaswellasurbanandruralcommunitymanagement.Peopleshoulddevelop“full-cyclemanagement”awareness,andexplorenewwaysofmodernizingthegovernanceofmegacities.

新冠肺炎疫情發生后,廣大醫務工作者毅然告別家人,白衣執甲、逆行出征、全力救治患者,展現了救死扶傷、醫者仁心的崇高精神。習近平在武漢考察時對奮戰在一線的醫務工作者給予高度評價,稱贊他們是新時代最可愛的人,是光明的使者、希望的使者,是最美的天使,是真正的英雄!

習近平多次作出重要指示,對參與疫情防控工作的醫務人員送去關愛和鼓勵。他強調,醫務人員是戰勝疫情的中堅力量,務必高度重視對他們的保護、關心、愛護。要關心關愛一線醫務人員,落實防護物資、生活物資保障和防護措施,統籌安排輪休,加強心理疏導,落實工資待遇、臨時性工作補助、衛生防疫津貼待遇,完善激勵機制,盡心盡力幫助他們解除后顧之憂,使他們始終保持昂揚斗志、旺盛精力,持續健康投入抗疫斗爭。

據統計,抗疫期間,人民解放軍、中央和國家部委、各省區市共派出340多支醫療隊、42000余名醫務人員馳援武漢。隨著疫情防控形勢逐步轉好,完成救助任務的各地馳援醫療隊將分批離開武漢、平安歸家。一張描繪著“白衣戰士”背影、寫著“謝謝你們,為我們拼過命”的海報刷屏網絡,道出了湖北和武漢人民的真切心聲。

AftertheoutbreakofCOVID-19,avastnumberofmedicalworkersbidfarewelltotheirlovedonesandwentinharm’sway.Aswarriorsinwhite,theydevotedeveryefforttosavepatients.XiJinpingspokehighlyofthemedicalworkersonthefrontline,callingthem“themostadmirablepeople”inthenewera,messengersofbrightnessandhope,themostbeautifulangels,andtrueheroes.

Duringtheanti-epidemiccombat,thePLA,centralministriesandcommissions,provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentaltogetherdispatchedmorethan340medicalteamsconsistingofover42,000healthcareworkerstoaidHubei.Astheconditionsturnedforthebetter,themedicalteamscompletedtheirmissionandwithdrewinanorderlymanner.Aposterdepictingthebackof“soldiersinwhite”withthewords“Thankyouforfightingforus”wentviralontheinternet,asitvoicedtheheartfeltgratitudeofthepeopleofWuhanandHubei.

新冠疫情發生后,人民解放軍堅決貫徹中共中央決策部署,迅速啟動聯防聯控工作機制,緊急抽組精兵強將奔赴疫情防控第一線,成為抗疫戰線不可或缺的重要力量。習近平在2月23日召開的統籌推進新冠肺炎疫情防控和經濟社會發展工作部署會議上指出,人民解放軍指戰員聞令而動、敢打硬仗,展現了人民子弟兵忠于黨、忠于人民的政治品格。

若有戰,召必至。在中共中央統一指揮下,全軍一萬余名醫護人員火線馳援,全力投入抗疫一線救治,第一時間批量接收患者,第一時間進入隔離病區,第一時間診治危重病人。武警部隊平均每天動用1000多名兵力、100余臺車輛,協助地方疫情防控部門擔負醫療物資調運卸載、防疫洗消和警戒值守等任務。各省軍區(警備區)出動民兵配合地方完成外來人員管理、場所消毒、警戒執勤、物資運輸、防疫宣傳等任務。

“是軍人,就要隨時上戰場!”從加強領導指揮到火速馳援武漢,從全力救治患者到做好綜合保障,從組織應急科研攻關到加強人員物資投送,人民解放軍再次展現了人民至上的硬核力量:哪里有危難,哪里就有共和國軍人在沖鋒;哪里有需要,哪里就有人民子弟兵在奉獻。

Aftertheoutbreakofthecoronavirus,thePLAresolutelyimplementedthedecisionsanddeploymentoftheCPCCentralCommittee,andpromptlylaunchedjointpreventionandcontrolmechanism.Emergencyteamsweredrawntothefrontline,becominganindispensableforceintheanti-epidemicfight.

AtthemeetingheldonFebruary23topromotenationwideepidemiccontrolandeconomicandsocialdevelopment,XiJinpingpointedoutthatthePLAcommandersandsoldiershadacteduponordersandwerebravetofightatoughbattle,whichdemonstratedthepoliticalcharacterofthepeople’sarmyandtheirloyaltytothePartyandthepeople.

“Ifawarbefalls,thePLAisreadytofightwhenthecallcomes.”UndertheunifiedcommandoftheCPCCentralCommittee,morethan10,000PLAmedicalstaffrushedtothefrontlineanddevotedthemselvestosavinglives.Theywereamongthefirsttostartreceivingpatientsandtreatingtheseriouslyillintheisolatedwards.Over1,000troopsand100vehiclesweremobilizedeverydaytoassistthelocalepidemicpreventionandcontroldepartmentsintransportingandunloadingmedicalsupplies,cleaninganddisinfecting,andpostingguards.Militiasweredispatchedbyprovincialmilitarycommands(garrisoncommands)toassistlocalauthoritiesinmanagingvisitors,disinfectingpublicplaces,performingvigilanceduty,deliveringgoodsandmaterials,communicatingepidemicpreventiontothepublicandothertasks.

“Soldiersarealwaysbereadytogotothebattlefield!”FromstrengtheningleadershiptorushingtoaidWuhan,fromtreatingtheilltoprovidingcomprehensivesupport,fromorganizingemergency-relatedscientificresearchestoexpandingpersonnelandmaterialdeliverycapacity,thePLAhasonceagaindemonstratedthesheerforceofputtingpeoplefirst:Wherethereisemergency,thereisthepioneeringpeople’sarmy;wherethereisaneed,thereisthededicatingpeople’sarmy.

抗擊疫情有兩個陣地,一個是醫院救死扶傷陣地,一個是社區防控陣地。習近平在北京市調研指導新型冠狀病毒肺炎疫情防控工作時強調,社區是疫情聯防聯控的第一線,也是外防輸入、內防擴散最有效的防線。把社區這道防線守住,就能有效切斷疫情擴散蔓延的渠道。

Therearetwofrontsinthebattleagainsttheepidemic:hospital–thelife-savingfront,andcommunity–theepidemicpreventionandcontrolfront.WheninspectingtheepidemicpreventionandcontrolinBeijing,XiJinpingemphasizedthatcommunitiesaretheforefrontofjointpreventionandcontrol,andalsoaneffectivedefenselineagainstimportationofcasesandintra-city/regiontransmission.Wecaneffectivelycurbthespreadifweholdfirmthedefenselineinthecommunities.

DuringhisinspectioninWuhan,XivisitedDonghuXinchengCommunityandtalkedwiththecommunityworkers.Hecalledcommunityworkers“temporaryprimeministerofthealleys,”whohavetohandleallkindsofmattersthatrelatetopeople’slivelihood.

Inthebattleagainsttheepidemic,thecommunityworkershadovercomevariousdifficultiessuchasinsufficientmanpower,limitedresources,hardconditionsandimperfectprotectivemeasures,andremainedsteadfastatthecity’sfrontlineofdefense.AsallthecommunitiesinWuhanwereundergrid-basedmanagement,gridmanagers,officialsdesignatedfromhigherlevels,volunteersandbuildingcoordinatorsformeddifferentgroupstoservetheresidents.Thereweretelephonecommunicationgroupsresponsibleforansweringhotlinequestionsforresidents,reportgroupstrackingandmonitoringresidents’healthstatuswithdailytelephoneinquiries,andpurchasinggroupsbuyingvegetablesandmedicinesfortheresidentsinneed.

Agreatnumberofcommunityworkersandvolunteersacrossthecountrydeliverednecessitiestoself-isolatedresidentsathomeonadailybasis,followeduptheirhealthconditions,andhelpedresidentsseedoctors,transfertohospitalsorgetconsultation.Theirdedicationshoredupastrongdefenselineinthecommunities.

新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,全國公安機關堅決貫徹落實習近平總書記重要指示精神和黨中央決策部署,全警動員、全力以赴投入戰疫情、防風險、保安全、護穩定各項工作,廣大公安民警、輔警不畏艱險、不怕犧牲,堅守崗位、英勇奮戰,全力投入到疫情防控和維護穩定工作。

同時,公安部科學調配警力,組織省市縣三級公安機關按照15%、20%、30%的比例抽調下沉34.2萬余名警力支援基層一線。他們不怕疲勞、連續作戰,用生命護衛人民、維護安全。截至4月2日,全國共有60名公安民警和35名輔警犧牲在抗擊疫情和維護安全穩定第一線,其中20名公安民警被追授為全國公安系統二級英雄模范稱號。

“疫情當前,警察不退”。抗擊疫情期間,廣大公安干警在做好自身防疫工作的同時,全力配合做好社會面疫情防控工作,依法打擊整治影響疫情防控和社會穩定的違法犯罪活動,著力做好復工復產依法保障工作,為推動全國疫情防控形勢持續向好作出了重要貢獻。

ThepublicsecurityorgansacrossChinaresolutelyimplementedtheinstructionsgivenbyPresidentXiJinpingandthedecisionsandplansmadebytheCPCCentralCommittee.Thewholepoliceforcewasmobilizedtojointhebattle.Theywentallouttocombattheepidemic,guardagainstrisks,andensuresafetyandstability.Thepublicsecurityofficersandpolicesupportofficersmetdifficultiesheadonandremainedsteadfasttotheirposts,devotingalltheireffortstotacklingthevirusandmaintainingstability.

Thepublicsecurityorgansatprovincial,municipalandcountylevelseachdispatched15%,20%,and30%oftheirpoliceforcestosupportthecommunities.Intotal,342,000-pluspoliceofficersworkedtirelesslyatthefrontline,riskingtheirlivestoprotectthepeopleandmaintainsecurity.AsofApril2,60policeofficersand35policesupportofficerssacrificedtheirlivesatthefrontline,and20ofthemwereposthumouslyhonoredassecond-classheroes.

“Iftheepidemicdoesnotrecede,thepolicewillnotretreat.”InthewaragainstCOVID-19,avastnumberofpoliceofficersmadegreatcontributiontothesociety-widepreventionandcontrol.Notonlydidtheypunishcriminalandotherillegalactivitiesthathinderedtheanti-epidemicfightorunderminedsocialstability,theyalsowenttogreatlengthstosupporttheresumptionofworkandproduction,thuscontributingtothepositivetrendingofepidemicpreventionandcontrolinChina.

基層是防疫前線,也是復工復產第一線。為最大限度發揮基層防控的力量和作用,習近平在2月3日召開的中央政治局常委會會議上強調,在疫情防控工作中,要堅決反對形式主義、官僚主義,讓基層干部把更多精力投入到疫情防控第一線。

基層干部沒有警服、救援服、隔離衣,只有最普通的口罩。他們沒有執法證、資格證,只有一張張群眾熟悉的面孔,他們既擔負著基層管理,又是當地群眾的“跑腿員”“廣播員”“安全員”。疫情期間,廣大基層干部堅持想群眾之所想、急群眾之所急,奔走在大街小巷、田間地頭,深入細致開展疫情摸排,組織疑似病例隔離觀察,協調防護物資分配,宣傳普及防疫知識,用扎實行動保障人民群眾生活,當好人民群眾的“貼心人”。

Grassrootsunitsareattheforefrontofthebattleagainsttheepidemic,andatthefirstlineofresumingworkandproduction.AtthemeetingheldonFebruary3bytheStandingCommitteeofthePoliticalBureauoftheCPCCentralCommittee,XiJinpingemphasizedoppositiontoexcessivebureaucracyandthemalpracticeofgoingthroughmotions,sothatgrassrootsofficialscandevotefullytoepidemicpreventionandcontrol.

Grassrootsofficialshavenoprotectivesuitstowear.Theyonlyhavemasks.Theyhavenopoweroflawenforcement.Theyarejustfamiliarfacestothelocals.Theyareresponsibleformanagingthecommunities,andserveasthe“errandrunner,”“broadcaster”and“securityofficer”ofthepeople.

Duringtheoutbreak,theywerekeptbusycheckingeveryblockforepidemicscreening,leavingnostoneunturned.Theyarrangedmedicalobservationofsuspectedcases,coordinatedthedistributionofprotectiveequipment,andspreadknowledgeofepidemicpreventiontothegeneralpublic.As“trustworthyfriendsofthepeople,”theysafeguardedpeople’swellbeingwithconcreteactions.

疫情防控是一場人民戰爭,構筑人民防線,守住社區防線,就能有效阻止疫情擴散蔓延。2020年2月10日,習近平在北京調研指導新冠肺炎疫情防控工作時強調,把防控力量向社區下沉,加強社區各項防控措施的落實,使所有社區成為疫情防控的堅強堡壘。這一要求,吹響了以社區為重點抗擊疫情的“集結號”。

社區防控點多面廣,情況復雜多樣,要做好地毯式追蹤、網格化管理,又要照應居民合理必需的要求,保證社區有序運轉,任務十分艱巨。為增強社區防控合力,嚴密社區防線,全國各地黨政機關干部紛紛走出機關,分批下沉社區,極大緩解了社區聯防聯控中的人手緊張壓力,為開展精細化防控注入力量。下沉干部深入社區街道,積極配合社區干部做好人員排查、測量體溫、消毒隔離、宣傳引導、后勤保障等各項防控工作,為社區居民筑牢“防疫墻”。下沉干部與廣大社區工作人員、公安干警、基層干部和志愿者們并肩作戰,形成了有序參與聯防聯控、群防群治的強大力量。

Epidemicpreventionandcontrolisawarthatinvolveseveryoneofthecountry.Aslongasapeople’sdefenselineisputinplaceandthecommunitiesarewelldefended,thespreadoftheviruscanbeeffectivelycurbed.WheninspectingtheepidemicpreventionworkinBeijingonFebruary10,XiJinpingemphasizedtheneedtoempowercommunitiestoimplementpreventionandcontrolmeasures,makingeverycommunityastrongbastiondefendingtheepidemic.Hisrequestsoundedthe“rallycall”tofocusoncommunity-centeredbattleagainstthevirus.

Thepreventionandcontrolworkinthecommunitiesarecomplicated.Itisanarduoustasktodoblankettrackingoncasesandexercisegrid-basedmanagement,whileattendingtothereasonableandessentialneedsofresidentsandmaintainingorderlyoperationofthecommunities.

Inordertocreatesynergyandstrengthencommunitydefenseline,numerousPartyandgovernmentofficialsweredesignatedtoworkinthecommunities.Theirarrivalgreatlyrelievedtheshortageofmanpower.Theyassistedcommunityworkersinpersonnelscreening,temperaturecheck,disinfectionandisolation,publicityandguidance,andlogisticssupport,buildingasolidanti-epidemicdefensefortheresidents.Theyworkedsidebysidewithlocalcommunityworkers,publicsecurityofficers,grassrootsofficialsandvolunteers,formingapowerfulinter-agencyforcetocarryoutsociety-wideactions.

這些志愿者中,有黨員、退役軍人、學生、快遞員和普通百姓等,他們年齡不一,性別不同,來自各個崗位甚至不同國家,堅守在高風險、高強度的防控一線,真誠奉獻、不辭辛勞:主動組建團隊,接送一線醫護人員通勤回家,擔當“生命的擺渡人”;招募集結社區志愿者,24小時待命運送發熱居民就診,為隔離居民買菜送藥,協助社區防控工作;發起專項募捐行動籌集善款,協調采購防護物資并送往一線;發動高校學生,為一線醫護人員子女學習提供免費在線輔導和幫助;報名加入武漢方艙醫院播音員隊伍,為醫護人員和患者朗誦文章、緩釋心情等。廣大志愿者用點點滴滴的努力療愈著心愛的家園,成為戰“疫”時刻一束溫暖的光。

Accordingtoincompletestatistics,morethan50,000volunteersjoinedtheeffortsinbattlingtheepidemicinWuhan,acitywithapopulationof10million.“Wewillnotretreatiftheepidemichasnotreceded.”Thisisthepledgeofallvolunteersacrossthecountry.

AmongthesevolunteerswereCPCmembers,ex-servicemen,studentsanddeliverymen.Differentinageandgender,andcomingfromdifferentwalksoflifeanddifferentcountries,theyweretotallydedicatedtothehigh-riskandhigh-intensityworkonthefrontline.

Manyvolunteersservedasdriversforfront-linedoctorsandnursestoandfromwork,oras24-hourstandbyforsendingresidentswithfeverformedicaltreatment.Manyhelpedtheself-isolatedresidentsbuyvegetablesandmedicines.Somelaunchedtargetedfund-raisingprogramsandcoordinatedthepurchaseofprotectiveequipmentanddeliveredthemtotheforefront;somemobilizedcollegestudentstoofferfreeonlinetutoringforthechildrenoffront-linemedicalworkers.SomevolunteersactedasannouncersinWuhan’stemporaryhospitalsinanefforttosoothethepatientsandmedicalworkers.Manyalittlemakesamickle.Theeffortsofthevastnumberofvolunteersofferedawarmlightatthetimeoftheanti-epidemicwar.

新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,中國醫護人員盡己所能、全力以赴救治病患。截至3月底,新冠肺炎患者中年齡最大的治愈患者103歲,最小的僅出生17天。2020年3月10日,習近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作時對正在接受治療的患者送去慰問,鼓勵患者群眾樹立必勝信心,保持樂觀向上的精神狀態,主動聽從醫囑,積極配合治療。

新冠肺炎救治工作中,重癥、危重癥的救治是重中之重,也是降低病死率的關鍵。面對這一最艱難的關隘,中國醫護人員對抗重癥的步履不停,通過組建院士巡診團隊,成立聯合專家組,七次修訂優化救治方案,組織插管小分隊,推廣中醫藥臨床使用等多項措施,提高治愈率、降低病亡率。在武漢,11家收治重癥、危重癥定點醫院的總床位達到9000多張,來自全國90多支國家級、省級的醫療隊的13000名重癥專業醫務人員參與新冠肺炎重癥的救治工作,接近全國重癥醫務人員資源的10%。截至3月31日,全國累計治愈出院病例超7.6萬例,治愈率為93.5%;其中,湖北全省累計治愈患者63000多例,治愈率超93%。

AftertheoutbreakofCOVID-19,Chinesemedicalworkershavedonetheirutmosttotreatthepatients.BytheendofMarch,theoldestCOVID-19patientcuredwas103yearswhiletheyoungestonly17days.OnMarch10,duringhisinspectioninHubei,XiJinpingexpressedsympathytothepatients,triedtoboosttheirmorale,andaskedthemtofollowthedoctor’sadviceforrecoveryatanearlierdate.

InthetreatmentofCOVID-19,thesevereandcriticalcases–thekeytobringingdownthefatalityrate–weregiventoppriority.Tocrackthistoughestnut,Chinesemedicalworkershaveworkedoutdifferentwaystotreattheseverecases,withthegoalofraisingthecurerateandloweringthefatalityrate.Theseincludedsettingupavisitingteamofacademicians,forminganexpertgroup,updatingthetreatmentplanseventimes,organizinganemergencyintubationteamforCOVID-19patients,andpromotingclinicaluseoftraditionalChinesemedicines.

InWuhan,thenumberofbedsin11hospitalsdesignatedforthetreatmentofsevereandcriticalcasesexceeded9,000.Morethan13,000intensivecarehealthprofessionalsfrom90-plusnationalandprovincialmedicalteamsparticipatedinthetreatmentofseverecases,accountingfornearly10%ofthenationalintensivecarepersonnelresources.ByMarch31,morethan76,000patientshadbeencuredanddischarged,withacurerateof93.5%.Amongthem,morethan63,000wereinHubei,withacurerateofover93%.

在抗擊疫情中,全國人民群眾在黨的科學部署與領導下,做到不慌亂,理性認知疫情,科學防控疫情。2020年3月10日,習近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作時指出,要緊緊依靠人民群眾,充分發動人民群眾,提高群眾自我服務、自我防護能力。他要求,保障好群眾基本生活,暢通“最后一公里”。

在這場全民戰“疫”中,廣大群眾自覺居家、減少外出,通過網絡在線拜年、工作、教學、采購等方式開啟“宅生活”,積極配合社區防控,共同努力守護來之不易的抗疫成效。廣大群眾在做好自身的防疫工作同時,也展現了大愛精神,紛紛通過各種形式與途徑支持武漢以及湖北其他地區。

3月23日,中央應對新冠肺炎疫情工作領導小組對疫情防控形勢作出最新判斷:以武漢為主戰場的全國本土疫情傳播已基本阻斷,疫情防控取得階段性重要成效。這是全國上下同舟共濟、抗擊疫情的“成績單”,為全黨全軍全國各族人民繼續團結奮斗、最終戰勝疫情注入“強心劑”。

UndertheParty’sleadershipanddeployment,thewholenationdidnotpanicinthefaceofCOVID-19.Rather,theydevelopedarationalunderstandingofthevirus,andadoptedascience-basedapproachtoepidemicpreventionandcontrol.DuringhisinspectioninHubei,XiJinpinghighlightedtheneedtocloselyrelyonthepeople,fullymobilizethemandimprovetheirabilitytoserveandprotectthemselves.Herequestedthatthebasiclivelihoodofthepeoplebeensuredand“thelastmile”serviceproblemsbesolved.

Inthisnationwidewaragainsttheepidemic,thepeoplevoluntarilystayedathome,reducedoutings,andleda“stay-at-homelifestyle”bydoingalmosteverythingonline,fromsendingNewYeargreetings,toworking,teachingandbuyingthings.Theysupportedthecommunityworkinthisway,inajointefforttosafeguardthehard-wonachievementsinepidemicpreventionandcontrol.Whiledoingtheirownpartstocombattheepidemic,thegeneralpublicalsoassistedWuhanandotherpartsofHubeithroughavarietyofforms,demonstratingthespiritofgreatlove.

OnMarch23,theCentralLeadingGroupforCOVID-19PreventionandControlmadethejudgmentonthedevelopmentoftheepidemic:ThespreadoftheepidemicinChina,withWuhanasthemainbattleground,hadbeenbasicallycontained,whichwasamilestoneintheanti-epidemicfight.Thiswasanimpressive“testreport”asaresultoftheconcertedeffortsofthewholenation.ItwasalsoastrongboosttotheParty,thePLAandthepeopleofallethnicgroupsinChinatocontinuetoworktogetherfortheultimatelyvictoryovertheepidemic.

新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,口罩在疫情防控中起著重要作用。2020年1月30日,國家衛生健康委印發《預防新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎口罩使用指南》。2月5日,國務院應對新冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《預防新型冠狀病毒感染口罩選擇與使用技術指引》。3月17日,根據疫情防控形勢向好和復工復產需要,聯防聯控機制修訂形成《公眾科學戴口罩指引》,從普通公眾、特定場所人員、職業暴露人員以及重點人員進行分類,并對不同場景下戴口罩提出科學指引的建議。

口罩佩戴的基本原則是科學合理佩戴、規范使用、有效防護。根據相關指南、指引建議,在非疫區空曠且通風場所不需要佩戴口罩,進入人員密集或密閉公共場所需要佩戴口罩。在疫情高發地區空曠且通風場所建議佩戴一次性使用醫用口罩;進入人員密集或密閉公共場所,佩戴醫用外科口罩或顆粒物防護口罩。特殊人群如可能接觸疑似或確診病例的高危人群,建議佩戴醫用防護口罩(N95及以上級別)并佩戴護目鏡。

佩戴醫用外科口罩時,鼻夾側朝上,深色面朝外,上下拉開褶皺,使口罩覆蓋口、鼻及下頜;按捏鼻夾,使之貼緊鼻梁,防止側漏。佩戴口罩前按規程洗手,佩戴時避免接觸口罩內側。口罩佩戴2-4小時更換一次,如口罩臟污、變形、損壞、有異味時也要及時更換。口罩摘下后應將接觸口鼻的一面朝里疊好,如需再次使用,可懸掛在潔凈、干燥通風處,或將其放置在清潔、透氣的紙袋中;如不再使用,應放入固定丟棄處,避免交叉感染。兒童不宜佩戴成人口罩,家長要幫助兒童正確佩戴口罩,并隨時關注佩戴情況,年齡極小的嬰幼兒不能佩戴口罩,易引起窒息。

FacemasksareimportantforpreventinginfectiousrespiratorydiseasesandloweringtheriskofCOVID-19infections.Facemaskscanpreventpatientsfromsprayingdroplets,reducetheamountandspeedofdroplets,andprotectthewearersfrominhalingdropletnucleusofthevirus.

FacemaskshavebeeneffectiveinpreventingandcontrollingCOVID-19.OnJanuary30,theNHCpublishedaGuideonFacemaskUsageAgainstNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumonia.OnFebruary5,theJointPreventionandControlMechanismoftheStateCouncilpublishedtheTechnicalGuidelinesforSelectingandUsingFacemasksAgainstNovelCoronavirusInfection.

OnMarch17,inresponsetoworkresumptionasthediseasepreventionandcontrolimproved,theJointPreventionandControlMechanismpublishedaGuideonProperUsageofFacemasksbythePublic,providingadviceforwearingfacemasksunderdifferentconditionsforthegeneralpublic,peopleatspecificareas,peoplewithoccupationalexposure,andkeypopulationgroups.

Facemasksshouldbewornandusedproperlytoensureeffectiveprotection.Accordingtorelevantguidance,inareasnotaffectedbythedisease,facemasksareunnecessaryinopenandwell-ventilatedplaces,butpeopleshouldwearfacemaskswhenenteringcrowdedorenclosedpublicplaces.Inhigh-riskareas,peopleshouldweardisposablemedicalmasksinopenandwell-ventilatedplaces,andwearsurgicalmasksorrespiratorsofgradeN95whenenteringcrowdedorenclosedpublicplaces.SpecialgroupswhomaycontactsuspectedorconfirmedcasesshouldweargogglesandrespiratorsofgradeN95orabove.

Whenwearingsurgicalmasks,holdthemaskwiththenosestripontopandthedark-coloredsidefacingoutward,pullthemaskoverthemouth,noseandchins,andpinchthenosestriptoconformtotheshapeofthenose.

Replacethemaskeverytwotofourhours,andchangethemaskwhenitisdirty,contaminated,distorted,damagedorsmelly.

Takeoffthemaskwiththesidetouchingthenoseandmouthfoldedinward,hangthemaskinclean,dry,ventilatedplaceorputitinacleanandventilatedpaperbagforreuse.

根據國家衛生健康委發布的《新型冠狀病毒肺炎診療方案(試行第七版)》,目前所見傳染源主要是新型冠狀病毒感染的患者。無癥狀感染者也可能成為傳染源。經呼吸道飛沫和密切接觸傳播是主要的傳播途徑。人群普遍易感。在備餐和聚餐過程中,人群相互之間都是密切接觸者,咳嗽、打噴嚏甚至近距離交談產生的飛沫,可直接傳播給整個聚會人群,極易造成疾病傳播,為疾病流行提供有利條件。因此,減少人員出行,避免參加集會、聚會是阻斷疫情的重要措施。

加強個人防護,還要減少到公共場所活動,尤其是一些人員密集、空氣流動性差的公共場所,如商場、餐廳、影院、車站、機場、碼頭、展覽館等。這是因為,公共場所人員多、流動量大、人員組成復雜,一旦有病毒攜帶者,很容易造成人與人之間的傳播,進而引發病毒感染和疫情擴散。

Everyoneisthefirstpersonresponsibleforhis/herhealth.DuringtheoutbreakofCOVID-19,ontopofthepreventionandcontrolmeasurestakenbythegovernmentandrelevantagencies,everycitizenshouldberesponsiblefortheirownandothers’health,andfulfiltheduediligencetomaintainpublicsecuritybyprotectingthemselvesandreducingnon-essentialoutingsandgatherings.

AccordingtotheDiagnosisandTreatmentProtocolforCOVID-19(TrialVersion7)publishedbytheNHC,patientsinfectedbythenovelcoronavirusarethemainsourceofinfection.Asymptomaticcoronaviruscarriersarepossiblesourceofinfection.Majorwaysoftransmissionarerespiratorydropletsandclosecontactwithinfectedpeople.AllpeoplearevulnerabletoCOVID-19.Whilepreparingmealsordiningtogether,peopleareinclosecontactwitheachother.Dropletsspreadbycoughing,sneezingandeventalkinginclosedistancemaydirectlytransmittothewholegroup,whichcaneasilyspreadthediseaseandfacilitatetheprevalenceofthedisease.Therefore,reducingoutingsandavoidinggatheringsandpartiesareimportantmeasurestointerruptthetransmissionofthedisease.

Peopleshouldstrengthenpersonalprotectionbyreducingvisitstopublicplaces,especiallywhereiscrowdedorpoorlyventilated,suchasshoppingmalls,restaurants,cinemas,stations,airports,wharvesandexhibitioncenters.Thesepublicplacesarecrowdedwithpeoplefromeverywhereandhavehighpopulationmobility,andviruscarriersareeasytocausepeople-to-peopletransmission,incurvirusinfections,andspreadthedisease.

除了外出佩戴口罩,洗手也是預防傳染病最簡單、最有效的措施之一。日常工作、生活中,人們的手不斷接觸到被病毒、細菌污染的物品,手上的病原體可以通過手和口、眼、鼻的粘膜接觸進入人體。洗手可以簡單有效地切斷這一傳播途徑,有效降低感染新冠病毒的風險。

為避免病毒經手傳播,應盡量減少接觸公共場所的公共物品和部位,同時注意勤洗手。以下情況應及時洗手:外出歸來,戴口罩前及摘下口罩后,接觸過淚液、鼻涕、痰液和唾液后,咳嗽打噴嚏用手遮擋后,護理患者后,準備食物前,用餐前,如廁后,接觸公共設施或物品后(如扶手、門柄、電梯按鈕、錢幣、快遞等物品),接觸嬰幼兒及哺乳喂食前,處理嬰幼兒糞便后,接觸動物或處理動物糞便后等。如不確定手是否清潔時,避免用手接觸口鼻眼;打噴嚏或咳嗽時,用手肘衣服遮住口鼻。

Besideswearingfacemaskswhengoingout,washinghandsisalsooneofthesimplestandmosteffectivewaystopreventinfectiousdisease.Indailyworkandlife,peoplemaytouchitemscontaminatedbyvirusesandbacteria,andpathogensontheirhandscangetintotheirbodiesthroughthemucosaeofmouth,eyesandnose.WashinghandscaneasilyandeffectivelyinterrupttransmissionthroughmucosaeandreducetheriskofCOVID-19infections.

Toavoidtransmissionofthevirusthroughhands,peopleshouldavoidtouchingitemsandfacilitiesatpublicplacesandwashhandsfrequently.Theyshouldwashhandsunderthefollowingconditions:

*aftertouchingpublicfacilitiesoritems(suchashandrails,doorknobs,elevatorbuttons,coinsandexpressparcels);

Peopleshouldavoidtouchingmouth,noseandeyeswhennotsurewhethertheirhandsareclean,andsneezeorcoughintotheelbow.

Therightwayofhandswashingis:Washthehandswithsoaporliquidsoapandrunningwater,rubthehandsforover20secondseachtime,andmakesurethepalms,fingers,thebackofthehands,nails,andthewristsandallotherpartsofthehandsarecleaned.Ifrunningwaterisnotavailable,useanalcohol-basedhandsanitizerinstead.

發生以下兩種情況時應及時到當地指定醫療機構進行排查診治:一是出現發熱(腋下溫度≥37.3℃)、咳嗽、氣促等急性呼吸道感染癥狀;二是有武漢及周邊地區,或其他有病例報告社區的旅行史或居住史,或發病前14天內曾接觸過來自武漢及周邊地區,或其他有病例報告社區的旅行史或居住史的發熱伴呼吸道癥狀的患者,或出現聚集性發病。

前往醫院的路上,應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量避免乘坐公共交通工具,路上打開車窗。在路上和到醫院時,盡可能離其他人至少1米距離。就醫時,應如實詳細講述患病情況和就醫過程,告知醫生近期旅行居住史、人員和動物接觸史等,配合醫生開展相關調查。

Fever,coughandbreathingdifficultiesmightbeinducedbyrespiratoryinfectionsandotherseverediseases.Peopleshouldcloselymonitortheirhealthconditions,takepersonalprotectionmeasureslikewearingfacemasks,andgotoseeadoctornearbywhentheydisplaysymptomslikefeverandcoughing.

Citizensshouldmonitortheirhealthandthatoftheirfamilymembers,minimizeclosecontactwithpeoplewhohavesymptomsofrespiratorydiseases(suchasfever,coughorsneezing),andtaketemperaturewhenfeelingfeverish.Iftherearechildrenathome,parentscantouchtheirforeheadsinthemorningandevening,andtaketheirtemperatureintimeiftheyhaveafever.

Peopleshouldgotolocaldesignatedmedicalinstitutionsforhealthcheck,diagnosisandtreatmentunderthefollowingtwocircumstances:(1)displayingsymptomsofrespiratoryinfectionssuchasfever(withaxillarytemperature≥37.3℃),coughingandshortnessofbreath;or(2)havingtraveledtoorlivedinWuhanorsurroundingareasorcommunitieswhereconfirmedcaseshavebeenreported,orhavingcontact,within14daysbeforefeelingill,withpatientswhohavefeverandsymptomsofrespiratoryinfectionsandhavetraveledtoorlivedinWuhanorsurroundingareasorcommunitieswhereconfirmedcaseshavebeenreported,orhavinginvolvedinclusteredcases.

Onthewaytoseeadoctor,peopleshouldwearsurgicalmasksorrespiratorsofgradeN95,avoidtakingpublictransportation,andopenthewindowofthevehicletheytake.Theyshouldkeepatleast1meterfromothersonthewaytoandafterarrivingatthehospital.Theyshouldtellthedoctorindetailabouttheirconditions,theirrecenttravelandresidencehistory,andtheircontactwithpeopleandanimals,andcooperatewiththedoctorinrelevantinvestigations.

在新冠肺炎疫情期間,做好防護措施的同時,保持良好衛生和健康習慣可以有效降低感染風險。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中介紹了保持良好衛生和健康習慣的主要做法:居室勤開窗,經常通風;家庭成員不共用毛巾,保持家居、餐具清潔,勤曬衣被;不隨地吐痰,口鼻分泌物用紙巾包好,棄置于有蓋垃圾箱內;注意營養,適度運動;不要接觸、購買和食用野生動物(即野味),盡量避免前往售賣活體動物(禽類、海產品、野生動物等)的市場;家庭備置體溫計、醫用外科口罩或N95口罩、家用消毒用品等物資。

DuringtheoutbreakoftheCOVID-19,whiletakinggoodprotectivemeasures,maintaininggoodhygieneandhealthhabitscaneffectivelyreducetheriskofinfection.OnJanuary27,theNHCreleasedaGuidebookonPublicPreventionofNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumonia,whichsuggestedthefollowingwaystomaintaingoodhygieneandhealthhabits:

*Donottouch,buyandeatwildanimals(gamey),andavoidvisitingthemarketthatsellsliveanimals(poultry,seafoodandwildanimals);

野生動物是指所有非經人工飼養而生活于自然環境下的各種動物。許多野生動物帶有多種病毒,如果人與之接觸,可能將病毒傳播給人類。如艾滋病、萊姆病、埃博拉病毒、亨德拉病毒、猴痘、SARS、MERS以及新冠病毒等,都是通過野生動物傳播到人類。

中國早在1988年就頒布了《中華人民共和國野生動物保護法》,規定禁止出售、購買、利用國家重點保護野生動物及其制品,禁止生產、經營使用國家重點保護野生動物及其制品制作的食品,或者使用沒有合法來源證明的非國家重點保護野生動物及其制品制作的食品。

新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,濫食野生動物的突出問題及其對公共衛生安全構成的巨大隱患,引起社會廣泛關注。2020年2月24日,第十三屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第十六次全體會議通過全面禁止非法野生動物交易、革除濫食野生動物陋習、切實保障人民群眾生命安全的決定,為維護公共衛生安全和生態安全,保障人民群眾生命健康安全提供有力的立法保障。為了人類健康,個人不要接觸、捕獵、販賣、購買、加工、食用野生動物。

Wildanimalsrefertoallkindsofanimalsthatliveinanaturalenvironmentwithoutartificialrearing.Manywildanimalscarrymultiplevirusesthatcanbetransmittedtohumansthroughcontact.ViruseslikeAIDS,Lymedisease,Ebolavirus,Hendravirus,monkeypox,SARS,MERS,andnovelcoronaviruscanspreadtohumansthroughwildanimals.

ChinapromulgatedtheLawontheProtectionofWildlifein1988,whichprohibitsthesale,purchaseandutilizationofwildlifethatareunderspecialstateprotectionandtheirproducts,andprohibitstheproductionandsaleoffoodmadeofwildlifethatareunderspecialstateprotectionandtheirproducts,oroffoodmadeofwildlifethatarenotunderspecialstateprotectionandtheirproductswithoutproofoflegalsource.

AftertheoutbreakoftheCOVID-19epidemic,theprominentproblemofeatingwildanimalsandthehugepotentialdangerstopublichealthhavearousedwideconcerns.OnFebruary24,the16thplenarymeetingoftheStandingCommitteeofthe13thNationalPeople’sCongressdecidedtothoroughlybanillegalwildlifetradeandbreakthebadhabitofeatingwildanimals,soastoeffectivelyguaranteethesafetyofthepeople’slives.Thisdecisionprovidedstronglegislativeguaranteetosafeguardpublichealthandecologicalsecurityandtoprotectpeople’slivesandhealth.Forthesakeofhumanhealth,peoplemustnottouch,hunt,sell,buy,process,oreatwildanimals.

家庭防控主要指為防止疫情擴散,以家庭為單位,在社區的指導下,各自做好自我管理和家庭管理。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中介紹了“家庭新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎預防指南”,提供了適用于家庭場所的日常預防建議:一是避免去疾病正在流行的地區;二是減少到人員密集、尤其是空氣流動性差的公共場所活動三是不要接觸、購買和使用野生動物,避免前往售賣活體動物的市場,禽肉蛋要充分煮熟后食用;四是居室保持清潔,勤開窗通風;五是隨時保持手衛生六是外出佩戴口罩七是保持良好衛生和健康習慣八是主動做好個人及家庭成員的健康監測九是準備常用物資,如體溫計、一次性口罩、家用消毒用品等。此外,該《指南》還對家庭成員出現可疑癥狀時的情況提供了防控建議,強調如家庭成員出現新冠肺炎可疑癥狀,應及時佩戴口罩并就醫;如家庭中有人被診斷為新冠肺炎患者,其他家庭成員如果經判定為密切接觸者,應接受14天醫學觀察;患者和密切接觸者應避免與無癥狀的其他家庭成員近距離接觸;對有癥狀的家庭成員經常接觸的地方和物品進行消毒等。

Thefamilyisthecellofsocietyandanimportantplaceofdefenseagainsttheepidemic.Amongnovelcoronaviruscases,familyinfectionsareprominent.Thegatheringofpeopleinthesamespaceforalongtimecaneasilycausevirusspreadingandresultin“infectionofawholefamilybyoneconfirmedmember.”

TheGuidebookonPublicPreventionofNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumoniaissuedbytheNHCmadethefollowingsuggestionsforfamilymembers:

*Donottouch,buyandeatwildanimals;avoidvisitingmarketsthatsellliveanimals,andcookpoultry,eggsandmeatthoroughly;

TheGuidancesuggestedthatfamilymemberswithsuspicioussymptomsshouldwearmasksandseekpromptmedicaladvice;whenonefamilymemberisdiagnosedwithCOVID-19,othermembers,ifidentifiedasclosecontacts,havetotakemedicalobservationfor14consecutivedays;patientsandclosecontactsshouldavoidclosecontactwithotherfamilymemberswhohavenosymptom;andtheplaceswherethefamilymemberwithsymptomsstaysandtheobjectshe/shefrequentlytouchesshouldbesterilized.

公共場所是公眾進行社會活動的重要載體,也是防控傳染病發生流行的重點環節,公共場所衛生安全關系人民群眾健康和經濟社會發展。為加強疫情防控,2020年1月30日,國務院應對新冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《公共場所新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎衛生防護指南》,對賓館、商場、影院、游泳館、博物館、候車(機)室、辦公樓等人群經常聚集活動的公共場所和工作場所的衛生防護提出措施指引和操作要求。

公共場所衛生操作方面,重點做好物體表面清潔消毒,對高頻接觸的物體表面(如電梯間按鈕、扶手、門把手等),可用含氯消毒劑、消毒濕巾進行噴灑或擦拭;加強餐(飲)具的消毒、衣服、被褥、座椅套等紡織物及衛生潔具的清潔消毒;加強通風換氣,保持場所內空氣流通,首選自然風;定期清洗空調濾網,未使用空調時應關閉回風通道;確保場所內洗手設施運行正常,配備足量洗手液、速干手消毒劑或感應式手消毒設施;加強垃圾分類管理,及時收集并清運,定期對垃圾桶等垃圾盛裝容器進行消毒清潔;設立應急區域,當出現疑似或確診病例時,及時到該區域進行暫時隔離和規范處理;在場所內顯著區域,開展防控健康宣教。

個人防護方面,工作人員要做好“三注意”,即注意個人衛生防護、注意手衛生、注意身體狀況。流動人員要減少聚集,減少不必要的外出,如果外出應做好個人防護和手衛生,在人口較為密集的公共場所,建議佩戴醫用口罩、勤洗手等;辦公樓等場所要加強對來訪人員健康監測和登記等工作。

Publicplacesarewherethegeneralpublictakepartinsocialactivities,thereforetheyareakeylinkinthepreventionandcontrolofinfectiousdiseases.Theseplacesarerelatedtopeople’shealthandeconomicandsocialdevelopment.

OnJanuary30,theJointPreventionandControlMechanismoftheStateCouncilpublishedaGuideonHealthProtectionofNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumoniainPublicPlaces,listingsuggestionsandrequirementsforhealthprotectioninpublicplacesandworkplaceswherepeopleoftengather,suchashotels,shoppingmalls,cinemas,swimmingpools,museums,waitingroomsandlounges,andofficebuildings.

*Forhygienicpracticesinpublicplaces,itisimportanttocleananddisinfectthesurfaceofobjects.Sprayorwipethesurfaceswithhighfrequencyofcontact(elevatorbuttons,handrailsanddoorhandles)withchlorine-containingdisinfectantsanddisinfectantwipes;

*Ensuredisinfectionoffood(drinking)utensils,sanitaryware,andtextilessuchasclothes,beddingandseatcovers;

*Ensurenormaloperationofhandwashingfacilitiesandadequatehandsanitizers,quick-dryhanddisinfectantsorinductivehanddisinfectionfacilities;

*Strengthengarbageclassificationmanagement,timelycollectionandremovalofgarbage,andregulardisinfectionandcleaningofgarbagecansandothercontainers;

Intermsofpersonalprotection,thestaffshouldpayattentiontopersonalprotection,handhygiene,andphysicalcondition.Mobilepersonnelshouldreducegatheringsandunnecessaryoutings.Theymustmakesureofpersonalprotectionandhandhygieneifgoingout.Incrowdedpublicplaces,itisrecommendedtowearmedicalmasksandwashhandsfrequently.Healthmonitoringandregistrationofvisitorsshallbemadeatofficebuildingsandotherplaces.

公共交通工具具有人流量大、人員來源復雜、密切接觸可能性大等特點,僅僅靠采取消毒措施切斷傳播途徑來預防疾病傳播具有較大難度。因此,應通過加強人員管理、環境衛生及消毒、健康宣教等措施,保障公共交通工具上人員的安全健康。

國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中,對飛機、火車、地鐵、公共汽車和輪船等公共交通工具的衛生防護提供措施建議。1月29日,國務院應對新型冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《公共交通工具消毒操作技術指南的通知》,指導汽車、火車、飛機、輪船等公共交通工具做好消毒工作,防止新冠肺炎通過交通工具傳播和擴散。

公共交通工具防控建議主要包括:發生疾病流行地區的公共交通工具在崗工作人員應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,并每日做好健康監測;公共交通工具建議備置體溫計、口罩等物品;增加公共交通工具清潔與消毒頻次,做好清潔消毒工作記錄和標識;保持公共交通工具良好的通風狀態;保持車站、車廂內的衛生整潔,及時清理垃圾;做好人員工作與輪休安排,確保司乘人員得到足夠休息。

Publictransportationfeatureslargeflowofpeople,complexpersonnelsource,andhighpossibilityofclosecontact.Itisdifficulttopreventthespreadofdiseasebyonlytakingdisinfectionmeasurestocutoffthetransmissionroute.Measuressuchasstrengtheningpersonnelmanagement,environmentalsanitationanddisinfection,andhealtheducationshouldbetakentoensurethesafetyandhealthofpassengers.

TheNHCprovidedrecommendationsonhygienicprotectionofpublictransportationsuchasplanes,trains,subways,busesandshipsintheGuidebookonPublicPreventionofNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumoniareleasedonJanuary27.OnJanuary29,theJointPreventionandControlMechanismoftheStateCouncilissuedanoticeonapplyingtheTechnicalGuidelinesforDisinfectionofPublicTransportation,whichprovideddisinfectionsuggestionsofcars,trains,planesandshipstopreventthespreadofthenovelcoronavirusthroughvehicles.

*On-dutystaffofpublictransportationinepidemicareasshouldwearsurgicalorN95masks,andcarryoutdailyhealthmonitoring;

*Increasethefrequencyofcleaninganddisinfectionofpublictransportation,andmakerecordsandidentification;

辦公場所防控主要指在辦公區域進行的疫情防控管理。隨著復工復產、人員陸續返崗,辦公區域人員密度大、停留時間長、人員構成復雜,增加了辦公場所的防控工作難度。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》中,提供了辦公場所防控指南,即工作人員要自行健康監測,若出現新冠狀病毒感染的可疑癥狀(包括發熱、咳嗽、咽痛、胸悶、呼吸困難、乏力、惡心嘔吐、腹瀉、結膜炎、肌肉酸痛等),不要帶病上班;若發現新型冠狀病毒感染的可疑癥狀者,工作人員應要求其離開;公用物品及公共接觸物品或部位要定期清洗和消毒;保持辦公場所內空氣流通;洗手間要配備足夠的洗手液,確保供水設施運行正常;保持環境衛生清潔,及時清理垃圾等。

此外,各地還就疫情期間辦公場所防控和工作人員防護提出措施建議。例如,建立主體責任制,明確辦公場所內各單位各部門的具體職責;辦公場所所在建筑的經營管理者要建立租用戶名錄清單,建立樓宇、院落出入口體溫監測、人員登記等防控措施;建立有針對性的防控工作方案;強化員工健康監測制度;加強重點崗位重點部門的風險梳理和應對措施;優化工作流程,降低感染風險;建立彈性工作制;減少會議等不必要的人群聚集性活動;保持辦公場所室內空氣流通;加強日常清潔和預防性消毒措施等。

Officepreventionandcontrolmainlyreferstoepidemicpreventionandcontrolmanagementintheworkplace.Withtheresumptionofworkandproductionandthereturnofpersonnel,theofficeareahasahighdensityofstaffwithlongstayandacomplexcomposition,whichincreasesthedifficultyofpreventionandcontrol.

ThePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),releasedbytheNHConJanuary29,providedaguidetoworkplacepreventionandcontrol:

*Asickemployeeshouldnotcometoworkincaseofsuspicioussymptomsofnovelcoronaviruspneumonia(suchasfever,cough,pharyngalgia,chestdistress,breathingdifficulties,fatigue,nausea,diarrhea,conjunctivitis,andmusclesoreness).

*Theoperatorofthebuildingwheretheofficeislocateddrawupalistoftenants,andtaketemperaturecheckandpersonnelregistrationatthebuildingorcourtyardentrance;

老年人群是新冠病毒易感高危人群,自我防護意識普遍較弱,因此,老年康復、護理、養老等機構應做好在院老年人群的防護措施。2020年1月底,國家民政部發出通知,要求各地全力做好養老機構新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,確保老年人安全健康。

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,養老機構防控疫情的主要措施包括日常預防措施,以及有老人出現可疑癥狀時的應對措施。疾病流行期間,建議養老機構實施封閉式管理,原則上不接待外來人員走訪慰問,老人不能離院外出,不再接受新入住老人,必須外出的老人回到養老機構后應密切觀察。此外,養老機構還應建立老人和工作人員的健康檔案,每日開展晨檢和健康登記;建立探訪人員登記制度,所有外來探訪人員應佩戴醫用外科口罩;倡導老人養成經常洗手的好習慣,確保環境清潔衛生。如有老人出現可疑癥狀時,及時為其安排單間進行自我隔離,由醫護人員對其健康狀況進行評估,視病情狀況送至醫療機構就診,并暫停探訪活動。

Theelderlyareavulnerableandhigh-riskgroupofthenovelcoronaviruswithweakself-protectionawareness.Theinstitutionsforelderlyrehabilitation,nursing,andelderlycareshouldtakeprotectivemeasuresfortheelderly.

InlateJanuary2020,theMinistryofCivilAffairsissuedanoticerequestingalllocalitiestomakeeveryefforttopreventandcontrolthenovelcoronavirusinelderlycareinstitutionstoensurethesafetyandhealthofseniorcitizens.

AccordingtothePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),majormeasurestobetakenbytheelderlycareinstitutionsincludeddailypreventivemeasuresandcountermeasuresincaseofsuspicioussymptomsofelderlypeople.

Duringtheepidemicoutbreak,theelderlycareinstitutionswererecommendedtoperformclosedmanagement.Technicallytheyshouldnotreceivevisitorsfromoutside,theelderlyshouldnotleavetheinstitutions,andtheinstitutionsshouldnotacceptnewarrivals.Theelderlywhohavetogooutshouldbeputundercloseobservationafterreturningtothenursinghome.

Theold-agecareinstitutionsshouldestablishhealthrecordsfortheelderlyandstaff,andconductdailymorningcheck-upandhealthregistration;conductregistrationofvisitorsanddemandallvisitorswearsurgicalmasks;encouragetheelderlytowashhandfrequentlyandkeeptheirroomscleanandtidy.

Incaseofsuspicioussymptomsofanelderly,theinstitutionshouldpromptlyarrangeasingleroomforquarantine,askthemedicalstafftoassesshis/herhealthstatus,sendhim/hertothemedicalinstitutionfortreatmentdependingonthecondition,andsuspendvisitstotheelderly.

幼兒園、學校是幼兒、學生集體生活的場所,易感人群集中,易導致交叉感染。為科學精準指導各類學校做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,維護師生員工生命安全、維護校園正常生活教學秩序,2020年3月12日,國家教育部應對疫情工作領導小組辦公室組織編寫的《幼兒園新冠肺炎防控指南》《中小學校新冠肺炎防控指南》《高等學校新冠肺炎防控指南》出版上線,對幼兒園、學校做好應對疫情工作具有指導意義。

幼兒園、學校防控疫情的主要措施包括:返校前有過疫情高發地區(如武漢等地區)居住史或旅行史的學生,建議居家觀察14天期滿再返校;學生返校后應每日監測體溫和健康狀況,盡量減少不必要外出,避免接觸其他人員;學生與其他師生發生近距離接觸的環境中,要正確佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量縮小活動范圍;學校密切監測學生的健康狀態,每日兩次測量體溫,做好缺勤、早退、請假記錄,如發現學生中出現可疑癥狀,應立刻向疫情管理人員報告,配合醫療衛生機構做好密切接觸者管理和消毒等工作;學校應盡量避免組織大型集體活動,教室、宿舍、圖書館、活動中心、食堂、禮堂、教師辦公室、洗手間等公共活動區域加強通風清潔,配備洗手液、手消毒劑等;校方對因疫情、因病誤課的學生開展網絡教學、補課,對于因病耽誤考試的學生,應安排補考,不應記入檔案。

Kindergartensandschoolsareplaceswhereyoungchildrenandstudentslivetogether,whoarevulnerabletodiseasesandeasilysuffercross-infection.

Toaccuratelyguidevariousschoolsonepidemicpreventionandcontrol,protectthehealthofchildrenandteachers,andmaintainnormalteachingorder,theleadinggrouponviruspreventionoftheMinistryofEducationonMarch12releaseddifferentguidesonCOVID-19preventionandcontrolinkindergartens,primaryandmiddleschools,andcollegesanduniversities.

*Stayathomefora14-dayobservationbeforereturningtoschooliftheyhaveatravelorresidencehistoryfromareashithardbytheepidemic(suchasWuhanandotherareas);

*Monitortheirbodytemperatureandhealtheverydayafterreturningtoschool,reduceunnecessaryoutdooractivitiesandavoidcontactwithothers;

*ProperlywearsurgicalorN95maskswheninclosecontactwiththeirteachersandschoolmates,andminimizethescopeofactivities.

*Monitorthehealthconditionofstudents,taketheirbodytemperaturetwiceaday,andmakerecordsofabsence,earlyleaveandleave;

*Reporttoepidemicmanagementstaffincaseofsuspicioussymptomsamongstudents,andcooperatewithmedicalandhealthinstitutionsinthemanagementofclosecontactsanddisinfectionwork;

*Ensureventilationandcleaninginpublicactivityareassuchasclassrooms,dormitories,libraries,activitycenters,canteens,auditoriums,teacherofficesandtoilets,andequiptheseplaceswithhandsanitizersandhanddisinfectants;

老年人免疫功能弱,是傳染病的易感人群和高危易發人群,本次新冠肺炎疫情的危重癥人群中老年人居多。2020年1月28日,國家衛生健康委印發《關于做好老年人新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的通知》,要求將老年人的疫情防控作為當前的重要工作來抓,采取有效措施,切實降低老年人感染率,盡最大努力減少重癥和死亡病例。全國老齡工作委員會辦公室發布的《給老年朋友的一封信》倡議,老年人要科學防控,不要過度恐慌;盡量減少外出,做好個人防護;注重補充營養和食品衛生;合理適度鍛煉身體;主動學習相關防護知識等。

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,老年人群的主要防控措施包括:確保老人掌握預防新冠肺炎的個人防護措施、手衛生要求、衛生和健康習慣,避免共用個人物品,注意通風,落實消毒措施;倡導老人養成經常洗手的好習慣;老人出現可疑癥狀時,應自我隔離,避免與其他人員近距離接觸,由醫護人員對其健康狀況進行評估,視病情狀況送至醫療機構就診,注意及時佩戴醫用外科口罩,并避免乘坐公共交通工具;曾與可疑癥狀者有無有效防護的密切接觸者,應立即登記,并進行醫學觀察;減少不必要的聚會、聚餐等群體性活動,不安排集中用餐等。此外,若出現可疑癥狀的老人被確診為新冠肺炎,其密切接觸者應接受14天醫學觀察。病人離開后(如住院、死亡等),應及時對住所進行終末消毒。

Theelderlywithweakimmunefunctionaresusceptibleandhigh-riskgroupsofinfectiousdiseases,andtheyarethemajorityofthesevereandcriticalcasesamongtheCOVID-19patients.

OnJanuary28,theNHCissuedanoticeonepidemicpreventionandcontrolamongtheelderly,requiringeffectivemeasurestoreducetheinfectionrate,severecasesanddeaths.TheOfficeoftheNationalWorkingCommitteeonAgingpublishedalettercallingfortheseniorcitizenstotakescientificmeasuresagainstthediseaseandnottopanic;reduceoutdooractivitiesandhavepersonalprotection;balancenutritionandensurefoodhygiene;exercisemoderately;andtakeprotectivetips.

AccordingtothePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),themainpreventionandcontrolmeasuresfortheelderlyincluded:

*Learnnecessarypersonalprotectivewaysagainstthedisease,keephandsclean,andmaintainhygieneandhealthhabits;

*Takeself-quarantineandavoidclosecontactwithothersincaseofsuspicioussymptoms,andaskthemedicalstaffassesstheirhealthstatusandsendthemtomedicalinstitutionfortreatmentdependingonthecondition;

*Anyonewhohastakennoeffectiveprotectionwhenhavingclosecontactwithsomeonewithsuspicioussymptomsshouldberegisteredimmediatelyandputundermedicalobservation;

Iftheelderlywithsuspicioussymptomsarediagnosedwiththenovelcoronavirus,theirclosecontactsneedtoreceive14daysofmedicalobservation.Afterthepatientleave(suchashospitalizationanddeath),theresidencemustbedisinfectedintime.

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,兒童群體的主要防控措施包括:盡量避免外出,不到人員密集和空間密閉的場所,不走親訪友,不與有呼吸道感染癥狀的人接觸,確需外出的要正確佩戴口罩,做好防護措施;要養成打噴嚏或咳嗽時用紙巾或袖肘遮住嘴巴、鼻子的習慣;如果有發燒、生病的情況,一定要配合家長及時去醫院就醫;家長要加強居室通風,做好室內消毒,創造清潔生活環境,外出回家后洗手更衣再接觸兒童;家長要教會兒童正確的洗手方法,督促兒童勤洗手、不亂摸,適度運動、合理膳食、作息規律,幫助兒童養成良好的衛生習慣等。

Childrenareoneofthevulnerablegroupsofthenovelcoronavirus.OnFebruary2,theJointPreventionandControlMechanismoftheStateCouncilissuedanoticeonensuringeffectivecontrolofthechildrenandpregnantwomen.

AccordingtothePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),themainpreventionandcontrolmeasuresforchildrenincluded:

*Reduceoutdooractivitiesasmuchaspossible,avoidgoingtocrowdedorpoorlyventilatedspaces,andavoidvisitingrelativesandfriendsorcontactwithpeoplewhohavesymptomsofrespiratorytractinfection;

*Parentsshouldteachchildrencorrectwayofhandwashing,urgechildrentowashtheirhandsfrequently,avoidtouchingpublicobjects,balancenutritionandexercisemoderately,workandrestregularly,andhelpchildrendevelopgoodhealthhabits.

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,學生群體的主要防控措施包括:寒假期間,有疫情高發地區(如武漢等地區)居住史或旅行史的學生,自離開疫情高發地區后,居家或在指定場所醫學觀察14天;各地學生均應盡量居家,減少走親訪友、聚會聚餐,減少到人員密集的公共場所活動;每日進行健康監測,并根據社區或學校要求向社區或學校指定負責人報告。寒假結束時,學生如無可疑癥狀,可正常返校;如有可疑癥狀,應報告學校或由監護人報告學校,及時就醫,待痊愈后再返校;返校途中,乘坐公共交通工具時全程佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,隨時保持手衛生,做好旅途中健康監測,避免與可疑癥狀人員近距離接觸;若旅途中出現可疑癥狀,應主動戴上醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量避免接觸其他人員,并視病情及時就醫;如需前往醫療機構就診時,應主動告知旅行居住史,妥善保存旅行票據信息,配合相關密切接觸者調查等。

Thehealthofstudentsinvolvesthousandsoffamilies,whichisthekeyandtoppriorityofepidemicpreventionandcontrol.OnJanuary29,theMinistryofEducationproposedallregionspostponethenewschooltermduringtheepidemicpreventionandcontrolperiod,andprimaryandmiddleschools“suspendclasseswithnon-stoppingteachingandlearning”duringtheperiod.

AccordingtothePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),thestudentsshoulddothefollowing:

*Stayathomeorinadesignatedplacefor14-daymedicalobservationaftertheirdepartureiftheyhaveatravelorresidencehistoryfromareashithardbytheepidemic(suchasWuhanandotherareas)duringthewintervacation;

*Stayathome,reducevisitstorelativesandfriends,partiesandcollectivedining,andreducevisitstocrowdedpublicareas;

*Reporttotheschoolifhavingsuspicioussymptoms,seekmedicaladviceinatimelymanner,andreturntoschoolafterrecovery;

*WearsurgicalorN95masksonpublictransportationonthewaybackschool,keephandhygiene,dohealthmonitoring,andavoidclosecontactwithpeopleofsuspicioussymptoms;

*WearsurgicalorN95masksincaseofsuspicioussymptomsduringthejourney,avoidcontactwithothers,andseekmedicaladviceinatimelymannerdependingonthecondition;

*Informthedoctorabouttravelandresidencehistory,preservethetravelticketsandinformation,andcooperatewiththeinvestigationaboutclosecontacts.

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》,在兩周內有武漢等疾病流行地區居住、旅行史的人員應做好登記、隔離和酌情就醫等防控措施,具體包括:盡快到所在村支部或社區登記,減少外出活動,尤其是避免到人員密集的公共場所活動;從離開疾病流行地區時開始,連續14天進行自我健康狀況監測,每天兩次;條件允許時,盡量單獨居住或居住在通風良好的單人房間,并盡量減少與家人的密切接觸;若出現可疑癥狀(包括發熱、咳嗽、咽痛、胸悶、呼吸困難、輕度納差、乏力、精神稍差、惡心嘔吐、腹瀉、頭痛、心慌、結膜炎、輕度四肢或腰背部肌肉酸痛等),應根據病情及時就診;就醫途中,應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩;避免乘坐公共交通工具前往醫院,路上打開車窗,注意時刻佩戴口罩、隨時保持手衛生,盡可能遠離其他人(至少1米),若路途中污染了交通工具,建議使用含氯消毒劑或過氧乙酸消毒劑,對所有被呼吸道分泌物或體液污染的表面進行消毒。

AccordingtotheGuidebookonPublicPreventionofNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumonia,releasedbytheNHConJanuary29,peoplewhohavelivedinortraveledtoepidemicareaslikeWuhanintheprevioustwoweeksshouldtakepreventionandcontrolmeasures,includingregistration,quarantine,andgettingmedicalattentionasappropriate.

*Registeratlocalcommunityorvillageadministrationassoonaspossible,andavoidoutdooractivities,especiallyvisitstocrowdedpublicplaces;

*Monitortheirhealthconditionstwiceadayfor14consecutivedaysstartingfromthedayofleavingtheepidemicareas;

*SeekmedicaladviceimmediatelyiftheyhavesuspicioussymptomsrelatedtoCOVID-19(suchasfever,cough,sorethroat,chestdistress,breathingdifficulties,mildlypoorappetite,fatigue,feebleness,nauseaorvomiting,diarrhea,headache,palpitation,conjunctivitis,mildmyalgiainlimbsorthelumbodorsalarea);

*Onthewaytohospital,wearasurgicalorN95mask,andavoidtakingpublictransportation;havethecarwindowsremainopenedforgoodventilation;keepthemaskonandhandsclearallthetime;andstayatleastonemeterfromotherpeople;

*Disinfectantscontainingchlorineorperaceticacidarerecommendedtosterilizeallsurfacesofthevehicleifcontaminatedbytheirrespiratorysecretionsorbodyfluids.

居家隔離是科學防控的必要手段,也是阻止病毒傳播蔓延的重要方法之一。為指導居家隔離醫學觀察的人員做好個人防護,預防和控制感染,國家衛生健康委在2020年2月5日印發的《新冠肺炎防控中居家隔離醫學觀察感染防控指引(試行)》中,對居家隔離醫學觀察隨訪者、居家隔離醫學觀察人員及其家庭成員或室友等相關人員的感染防控措施作出詳細介紹。

根據該防控指引,居家隔離醫學觀察人員感染防控應注意:可選擇家庭中通風較好的房間隔離,多開窗通風,保持房門隨時關閉,在打開與其他家庭成員或室友相通的房門時先開窗通風;不隨意離開隔離房間,必須離開隔離房間時,先戴好外科口罩,洗手或手消毒后再出門;盡可能減少與其他家庭成員或室友接觸,保持1米以上距離并盡量處于下風向;避免使用中央空調;保持充足休息和充足營養,最好在隔離房間內進食、飲水,分時段共用衛生間,用后通風并用酒精等消毒劑對身體接觸的物體表面清潔消毒;講究咳嗽禮儀,咳嗽時用紙巾遮蓋口鼻,不隨地吐痰,紙巾及口罩用后丟入專門的帶蓋垃圾桶內;用過的物品及時清潔消毒;按居家隔離醫學觀察通知,每日上下午測量體溫,自覺發熱時隨時測量并記錄,出現發熱、咳嗽、氣促等急性呼吸道癥狀時,及時聯系隔離點觀察人員。

Homequarantineisascientificwayandanimportantmeanstocontainthevirusfromspreading.TheGuidelinesonMedicalObservationatHomeforCOVID-19PreventionandControl(Trial),releasedbytheNHConFebruary5,detailedthemeasuresforpeopleunderhomequarantineandtheirfamilymembers/roommates,andstaffconductingfollow-upvisitstothem.

*Openthewindowoftheirroomforventilationbeforeopeningthedoorthatconnectstowherefamilymembersorroommateslive;

*Minimizecontactswithfamilymembersorroommates,keepadistanceofatleastonemeterfromthem,andtrytobeinthedownwinddirection;

*Timesharebathrooms,andafterusage,keepthebathroomventilated,andusealcoholandotherdisinfectantstosterilizeallthesurfacesofobjectsthataresubjecttophysicalcontacts;

*PracticetheCoughEtiquette:coveringmouthandnosewithatissuewhencoughing;nospitting;andputtingtheusedtissuesandmasksintospecialwastereceptacleswithcovers;

*Followthenoticeformedicalobservationathometomeasurebodytemperatureeverymorningandafternoonoranytimewhentheyhaveafever;

*Contactstaffatthequarantinecenteriftheydevelopacuterespiratorysymptomssuchasfever,cough,andpanting.

Iffamilymembers,roommates,staffofpropertymanagement,cleaningandsecurity,andotherpeopleneedtocomeintocontactwiththepeopleundermedicalobservationathome,theyarerecommendedtocorrectlywearandremoveprotectivesuits.

冬春季節,呼吸道傳染病高發,普通感冒、流感和新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎均可導致發熱,但癥狀各有不同。如普通感冒通常表現為打噴嚏、流鼻涕、咽喉不適等明顯的上呼吸道癥狀,而全身癥狀較輕,不發熱或僅有短暫發熱。流感多為高熱,全身癥狀較重,伴有畏寒、頭痛、全身酸痛、鼻塞、流涕、干咳、胸痛、惡心、食欲不振等表現。新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎以發熱、乏力、干咳為主要表現,少數患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹瀉等癥狀。

根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,如果出現發熱、咳嗽等癥狀,以下任一情況,建議采取居家隔離的方式進行觀察,一是癥狀輕微,體溫低于38℃,無明顯氣短、氣促、胸悶、呼吸困難,呼吸、血壓、心率等生命體征平穩;二是無嚴重呼吸系統、心血管系統等基礎疾病及嚴重肥胖者。

《指南》建議,居家發熱患者應注意休息,營養均衡,飲食宜清淡;多飲溫水,少飲冰涼飲料,保證脾胃功能正常;避免盲目或不恰當使用抗菌藥物;嚴格正確佩戴口罩,與家人分餐,與家人保持距離1.5米以上;怕冷、發熱、肌肉酸痛、咳嗽者,可選用具有解熱散寒、清熱解毒、宣肺止咳類中成藥;乏力倦怠,惡心、食欲下降、腹瀉者,可選用具有化濕解表類中成藥;發熱伴有咽痛明顯者,可選用具有清熱解毒利咽功能類中成藥;發熱伴有大便不暢者,可加用具有通腑瀉熱類制劑。此外,如果居家發熱患者體溫升高至38.5℃以上,可采取溫濕毛巾或冰貼等物理降溫措施,建議口服解熱鎮痛類、清熱解毒類中成藥。如果患者體溫持續2小時以上不退,出現胸悶、氣短、心率增快、腹瀉或嘔吐加重,建議到定點醫院、發熱門診就診。如果呼吸頻率出現呼吸頻率≥30次/分,伴呼吸困難及口唇發紺等表現,應撥打120急救電話,由急救醫護人員轉運到定點醫院、發熱門診救治。

Wintersandspringsseehighincidencesofrespiratoryinfections.Commoncold,influenzaandCOVID-19canallleadtofever,buttheyaredifferentinothersymptoms.Thesymptomsofacommoncoldareobviousintheupperrespiratorytract,suchassneezing,runnynose,andsorethroat,andalsotheremaybesomemildgeneralsymptomswithtransientfeverornofever.Peoplewithinfluenzamayhaveseveregeneralsymptoms,oftenincludinghighfevers,andothersignssuchasfeelingchills,headaches,bodyaches,runnyorstuffynose,drycough,chestpain,nausea,andlackofappetite.ThesymptomsofCOVID-19mainlyarefever,fatigue,anddrycough.Afewpatientsalsohaverunnyorstuffynoses,diarrheaandothersigns.

AccordingtothePreventionandControlProtocolforNovelCoronavirus(1stEdition),homequarantineisrecommendedforthosewithsymptomsoffeverandcoughifanyofthefollowingismet:(1)bodytemperaturebelow38℃,mildsymptomswithoutobviousshortnessofbreath,tachypnea,chestdistress,orbreathingdifficulties,andsteadyvitalsignsincludingbreath,bloodpressureandheartrate;(2)nosevereunderlyingdisordersintherespiratoryorcardiovascularsystem,andnosevereobesity.

AsadvisedintheProtocol,feverpatientsathomeshouldgetgoodrest,keepalightandwell-balanceddiet,andtakewarmwaterinsteadofcolddrinkstoensurenormalfunctionsofthespleenandstomach.Blindorimproperuseofantibioticsshouldbeavoided.Separatemealsareencouragedathome.Theyshouldwearamaskcorrectly,andmaintainatleast1.5-meterdistancefromotherfamilymembers.

Forsymptomsoffeelingchills,fever,myalgiaandcough,Chinesepatentmedicines(CPMs)forreleasingheat,dissipatingcold,detoxifying,anddiffusingthelungtosuppresscoughcouldbetaken;forfatigue,nausea,lossofappetite,anddiarrhea,CPMsforresolvingdampnessandreleasingtheexterior;forfeverandobvioussorethroat,CPMsforreleasingheat,detoxifying,andsoothingthethroat;andforfeverandpoorbowelmovement,Chinesemedicinepreparationsforrelaxingthebowelsandpurgingheatcouldbeadded.

Ifthetemperatureofafeverpatientathomerisesabove38.5℃,suchmeasuresaswarmandwettowelsandicestickscouldbeusedforphysicalcooling,andoraladministrationofCPMsforreleasingheat,easingpain,anddetoxifyingisrecommended.

Ifthehightemperatureremainsformorethan2hoursandthesymptomsofchestdistress,shortnessofbreath,aswellasincreasedheartrate,diarrheaorvomitingaredeveloped,itisadvisedtovisitadesignatedhospitalorfeverclinic.

Iftherespiratoryfrequencyishigherthan30/minute,andtherearesymptomsofbreathingdifficultiesandbluelips,call120forfirstaidtosendhim/hertoadesignatedhospitalorfeverclinicbymedicalpersonnel.

國家衛生健康委在2020年1月22日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控方案(第二版)》中,明確提出了新冠肺炎病例監測方案、流行病學調查方案、可疑暴露者和密切接觸者管理方案以及實驗室檢測技術指南,提出加強組織領導、病例發現與報告、流行病學調查等9項防控措施,指導各級各類醫療機構、各級疾控機構開展病例監測、發現和報告工作。根據該防控方案,疑似病例的定義為:有三項臨床表現,即發熱,具有肺炎影像學特征,發病早期白細胞總數正常或降低,或淋巴細胞計數減少;同時,具有發病前14天內有武漢旅行史或居住史,或發病前14天內曾接觸過來自武漢的發熱伴有呼吸道癥狀的患者,或有聚集性發病或與確診病例有流行病學關聯等任何一項流行病學史的患者。

IntheProtocolforNovelCoronavirus-infectedPneumoniaPreventionandControl(2ndEdition),releasedonJanuary22,theNHClaidoutguidelinesformonitoringofthepatients,epidemiologicalinvestigations,andmanagementofsuspiciousexposuresandclosecontacts,andtechnicalguidelinesforlaboratorytesting.Ninemeasuresofpreventionandcontrol,includingstrengtheningorganizationandleadership,casedetectionandreport,andepidemiologicalinvestigation,wereprovidedtoguidehealthcarefacilitiesanddiseasecontrolcentersatalllevelsonmonitoring,detectingandreportinginfections.

AccordingtotheProtocol,thedefinitionofsuspectedcasesconsidersbothclinicalandepidemiologicalfeatures.Therearethreeclinicalmanifestations:fever;radiographicimagingconsistentwithpneumonia;andnormalordecreasedwhitebloodcellcount,ordecreasedlymphocytecountintheearlystagesofthedisease.Theepidemiologicalhistoryincludes:historyoftraveltoorresidenceinWuhanwithin14dayspriortotheonsetofthedisease;contactwithapatientfromWuhanwithfeverandrespiratorysymptomswithin14dayspriortotheonsetofthedisease;clusteredcases;orepidemiologicalrelationwithconfirmedcases.Asuspectedcaseisdefinedbyhavingallthethreeclinicalmanifestationsplusanyoftheepidemiologicalhistorycriteria.

ItisstatedintheProtocolthatifpatientswhomeetthedefinitionsofsuspectedorconfirmedcasesaredetected,healthcarefacilitiesshouldconductepidemiologicalinvestigations,specimencollectionsandlabtesting,andstrengthenmeasuresforquarantine,disinfection,preventionandcontrol.Suspectedcasesshouldbequarantinedandtreatedinsinglerooms.

國家衛生健康委在2020年1月30日印發的《新冠病毒感染不同風險人群防護指南》中,對需要到醫療機構就診的出行人員提出防護建議:佩戴醫用外科口罩,并保持手清潔;盡量避免乘坐地鐵、公交車等交通工具,避免前往人群密集的場所;就診時應主動告知醫務人員相關疾病流行地區的旅行居住史,以及與他人接觸情況,配合醫療衛生機構開展相關調查。

同時,醫療機構應做好就診患者的管理,合理配置醫務人員,降低醫療機構內感染的風險;發現疑似或確診感染新冠病毒的患者時,依法采取隔離或控制傳播措施,并按照規定對患者的陪同人員和其他密切接觸人員采取醫學觀察及其他必要的預防措施;不具備新冠肺炎救治能力的醫療機構,應及時將患者轉診到定點救治醫院。

IntheGuideonProtectingPeopleAgainstDifferentRisksofNovelCoronavirusInfection,releasedonJanuary30,theNHCprovidedthefollowingadvicetoindividualswhoneedtovisitamedicalinstitution:

*Informmedicalstaffoftheirhistoriesoftraveltoorresidenceintheepidemicregionsandcontactswithothers,andcooperatewiththemedicalinstitutiontocarryoutrelevantinvestigations.

Medicalinstitutionsshouldstrengthenpatientmanagement,allocatemedicalstaffproperly,andreducetherisksforhospital-acquiredinfection.Whenasuspectedorconfirmedcaseisidentified,quarantineorcontainmentshouldbetakeninaccordancewithlaw,andmedicalobservationandothernecessaryprecautionsshouldbeprovidedtothepatientescortsandotherclosecontacts.TheinstitutionslackofthecapabilityfortreatingCOVID-19shouldtransferthepatientstodesignatedhospitalsinatimelymanner.



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